-ideal solution to the Greek architect's quest for perfect proportions in Doric temple design
-short ends have 8 columns and long sides have 17 (can be expressed algeraically as x=2y+1 -- 17=2(8) +1 )
-with harmonious design and mathematical precision of the sizes
-but also have irregularity: for examples:
1. the stylobate (the base) curves upward at the center on the sides and both facades
2.the columns lean inward slightly
--->contrapposto (shifting of weight) in architecture
East and West Pediments
left hand side of the East Pediment:
the horses of Helios (the Sun) emerge from the pediment's floor, suggesting the sun rising above the horizon at dawn.
right hand side of the east pediment: the statues conform perfrectly to the slope, and the thin and heavy folds of the garments reveal the body forms nicely
Right: Palette of King Narmer
(left: back; right: front)
from Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Predynastic, ca. 3000-2920 BCE. Slate, 2'1"hight.
-earliest preserved labeled historical reliefs
-a utilitarian object used to prepare eye makeup
-commenmorate the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. (signified by the two interwined necks of the animals)
-Narmer, the largest figure, defeating a foe on one side, and on the other survys the beheaded enemy
-the largest statue in the Near East
-carved out of stone directly
-represents a pharaoh
-associated with the sun god
-combination of human intelleigence with the immense strength and authorith of the king of beasts
The Papyrus Scroll of Hu-nefer's Last Judgment.
The book of the Dead contained spells and prayers. This scroll depicts the weighing of Hu-Nefer's heart against Maat's feather before the deceased can be brought before Osiris, god of the Underworld.
Right: Nude Woman (Venus of Willendorf)
ca 28000-25000 BCE
-it is one of the oldest and famous prehistoric femal figure
-tiny limestone of a woman
-a ball-like shape
-the exageeration of the breasts: celebration of fertility and emphasis of the child-bearing capabilities that ensure the survival of the species
-not aim for naturalism
-not trying to represent a particular person, since the facial features are not shown and covered up by a mass of curly hair
Hall of the Bulls (in the cave at Lascaux, France, ca. 15000-13000 BCE. Largest bull: 11'6"long
-dance or rituals might have been performed in front of the cave paintings
-some historians guested these images served as teaching materials for teaching new hunters
First statue to show how a person naturally stands. The sculptor depicted the shifting of weight from one leg to the other (contrapposto). The head turns slightly and the Archaic smile is gone.
From the end of the Archaic Period:
By Polykleitos, “Doryporos” (Spear Bearer) Roman marbel copy from Pompeii Italy.
Like harmonic chords in music: intervals: 2:1, 3:2, 4:3
Look for the ideal: “standard of perfection” Canon
Cross balance, weight shifting
Right arm, left leg: relaxed
Supporting leg and left arm: tensed
Head: turn to the right, hips twist to the left
Ratio of head/body: 1/7
'Beauty, Chrysippos believes, inheres... in the commensurability of the parts, such as that of finger to finger, and all these to the palm and wrist, and of these to the forearm, and of the forearm to the upper arm, and of everything to everything else, just as it is written in the "Canon" of Polykleitos. For having taught us in that treatise all the commensurate proportions of the body, Polykleitos made a work to support his account; he made a statue according to the tenets of his writing, and called it, like the treatise, the "Canon". '
written byGalen, a physician who lived during the second century CE
By Pythagoreans. Pythagoras might have visited Egypt which might found this ratio there earlier already.
-The Greeks or Hellenes (as they called themselves) never formed a single nation, but independent city-states
-they also borrowed ideas, motifs, conventions… from older civilization, like Egypt
Abstract angular motifs
(most early Greek painters decorated vases this way)
-the mourning for a man laid out
-figures: 2 dimensional, triangular frontal torsos
-bottom: the horses have the correct number of heads and legs, but share a common body-> there is no sense of overlapping or depth
-long hair, unnaturally elongated neck
Muscles, triangular torso and face..
-motifs borrowed from or inspired by eastern artworks from Egypt, Iraq etc.
The start off of the Archaic Period
-Lady of Auxerre 650-625BCE 2’1.5”
-Daedalic style (Daedalus used to work in Egypt and learnt a lot form Egyptian Art)
-impact of Egyptian Art
-triangular face, hair
-geometric fondness for abstract pattern
-In both Egypt and Greece, the figure is rigidly frontal
The west pediment's warrior (above) is still in the Archaic mode:
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